Dating introduction bureaus
Early inhabitants saw it as being shaped like a deer horn, but modern Turks call it the Haliç (“Canal”).
The Bosporus (İstanbul Boğazı) is the channel connecting the Black Sea (Karadeniz) to the Mediterranean (Akdeniz) by way of the Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi) and the straits of the Dardanelles.
Until the Turkish Post Office officially changed the name in 1930, however, the city continued to bear the millenary name of Constantinople. (2007) 10,757,327; (2014 est.) urban agglom., 14,025,646.
The old city contains about 9 square miles (23 square km), but the present municipal boundaries stretch a great deal beyond.
The original peninsular city has seven hills, requisite for Constantine’s “New Rome.” Six are crests of a long ridge above the Golden Horn; the other is a solitary eminence in the southwest corner.
Around their slopes are ranged many of the mosques and other historic landmarks that were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985. The Golden Horn is a deep drowned valley about 4.5 miles (7 km) long.
Istanbul has three of the world’s longest suspension bridges: Bosporus I (Boğazici) Bridge (completed in 1973), with a main span of 3,524 feet (1,074 metres); Bosporus II, the Fatih Sultan Mehmed Bridge (1988), 3,576 feet (1,090 metres); and Bosporus III, the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (2016), 4,620 feet (1,408 metres).
In the 13th century Arabs used the appellation Istinpolin, a “name” they heard Byzantines use——which, in reality, was a Greek phrase that meant “in the city.” Through a series of speech permutations over a span of centuries, this name became Istanbul.The walls are 4.5 miles (7 km) long and consist of a double line of ramparts—the inner built in 413, the outer in 447—protected by a moat.The higher inner wall is about 30 feet (9 metres) high and 16 feet (5 metres) thick and is studded with 60-foot (18-metre) towers about 180 feet (55 metres) apart.For centuries, foreigners who wished to visit Stamboul, where the court was installed, could do so only if accompanied by one of the sultan’s Janissaries (elite soldiers).Nothing remains of the Byzantium that Constantine chose as the site of New Rome, and almost nothing is left of the mighty city he built there.